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生物安全*实验室
发布时间:2014-08-14 点击次数:3583次

 近日埃博拉疫情的日益严峻,美国疾控中心和世界卫生组织都将埃博拉疫情响应升至zui别,这也使媒体对埃博拉病毒关注的目光,转向研究埃博拉病毒的利器、也几乎是*神器¾生物安全4级实验室,生物安全实验室共分4级(Biosafety Level 1-4), 生物安全4级实验室又常被称为P4实验室,这个P可不是个屁,是指Pathogen(病原) or Protection(保护)。说生物安全4级实验室是生物安全*实验室,不仅仅是指生物安全方面是*的,zui高的,其造价也是zui贵的,因此,数量很少,即使是在范围内,生物安全4级实验室也只有56个,这还包括一些正在建设中的(参见下表)。

序号

         

       

建设时间

          

 

 
  

1

Virology  Laboratory of the Queensland Department of Health

Australia,  Queensland, Coopers Plains

 

 

  

2

Korea  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC)

Osong,  Cheongwon county, North Chungcheong province, South Korea

2013

 

  

3

University  of Queensland - Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre (SASVRC) Royal  Women's Hospital Brisbane P3 (BL3)

Australia,  Queensland, Herston

 

 

  

4

Australian  Animal Health Laboratory

Australia,  Victoria, Geelong

 

 

  

5

National  High Security Laboratory

Australia,  Victoria, North Melbourne

 

National  High Security Laboratory Operates under the auspice of the Victoria  Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory.

  

6

Republican  Research and Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology

Belarus,  Minsk

 

Department  of Molecular Epidemiology & Innovational Biotechnologies

  

7

National  Microbiology Laboratory

Canada,  Manitoba, Winnipeg

 

Located  at the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, it is jointly  operated by the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Food  Inspection Agency.

  

8

Wuhan  Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

China,  Hubei, Wuhan

2003

Wuhan  Institute of Virology already hosts a BSL-3 laboratory. A distinct BSL-4  facility is currently being built based on P4 standards, the original  technology for confinement developed by France. It will be the first at level  4 in China, under the direction of Shi Zhengli.

  

9

Biological  Defense Center

Czech  Republic, Pardubice, Těchonín

1971,  rebuilt 2003-2007

Located  at the Centrum biologické ochrany (Biological Defense Center)[13]

  

10

Laboratoire  P4 Jean Mérieux

France,  Rhône-Alpes, Lyon

######

Jean  Mérieux laboratory is a co-operation between the Pasteur Institute and  INSERM. Note that in France, it is P4 for Pathogen or Protection level 4.

  

11

Centre  International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville

Gabon

 

This  facility is operated by a research organization supported by both Gabonese  (mainly) and French governments, and is West Africa's only P4 lab (BSL-4).

  

12

Robert  Koch Institute

Germany,  Berlin

 

The  facility was licenced for construction by City of Berlin on November 30,  2008.

  

13

Bernhard  Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine

Germany,  Hamburg

 

 

  

14

Friedrich  Loeffler Institute on the Isle of Riems

Germany,  Isle of Riems (Greifswald)

2010

Deals  especially with virology

  

15

Philipps  University of Marburg

Germany,  Marburg

2008

The  facility is licenced to work with genetically modified organisms

  

16

High  Security Animal Disease Laboratory (HSADL)

India,  Bhopal

1998

This  facility deals especially to zoonotic organisms and emerging infectious  disease threats.

  

17

Centre  for Cellular and Molecular Biology

India,  Hyderabad

2009

National  Bio-Safety Level-4 Containment Facility for Human Infectious Diseases &  Clinical Research Facility in Regenerative Medicine.

  

18

All  India Institute of Medical Sciences

India,  New Delhi

1993

Conducts  studies on major pathogenic organisms. Has contributed in discovering new  strains & vaccines.

  

19

Microbial  Containment Complex

India,  Pune

2012

Bio-Safety  Level-IV Laboratory established by ICMR with support from Department of  Science & Technology

  

20

Azienda  Ospedaliera Ospedale Luigi Sacco

Italy,  Lombardy, Milan

 

A  university hospital in Polo Universitario; it contains two special vehicles  for transporting infectious persons.

  

21

Istituto  Nazionale Malattie Infettive

Italy,  Lazio, Rome

 

This  facility, (trans.) National Institute of Infectious Diseases, operates within  the Lazzaro Spallanzani Hospital.

  

22

National  Institute for Infectious Diseases

Japan,  Tokyo, Musashimurayama

 

Located  at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Department of Virology I; this  lab has the potential of operating as a BSL-4, however it is limited to  perform work on only BSL-3 agents due to opposition from local residents and  communities.

  

23

Institute  of Physical and Chemical Research

Japan,  Ibaraki, Tsukuba

 

This  is a non-operating BSL-4 facility.

  

24

Netherlands  National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)

Netherlands,  Bilthoven

2009

 

  

25

Cantacuzino  Microbiological Research Institute (INCDMI)

Romania,  Bucharest

 

   

26

"Dr.  Carol Davila" Central Military Hospital

Romania,  Bucharest

 

   

27

State  Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR

Russia,  Novosibirsk Oblast, Koltsovo

 

It  is one of two facilities in the world that officially hold smallpox. The  other Russian BSL-4 facilities have been dismantled.

  

28

National  Institute for Communicable Diseases

South  Africa, Johannesburg

 

National  Institute for Communicable Diseases of Special Pathogens Unit is one of only  two BSL-4 facilities in Africa but the only suit laboratory on the continent.

  

29

Swedish  Institute for Communicable Disease Control

Sweden,  Solna

 

Swedish  Institute for Communicable Disease Control is Scandinavia's P4 facility.

  

30

University  Hospital of Geneva

Switzerland

 

 

  

31

Spiez  Laboratory

Switzerland,  Spiez

 

 

  

32

Kwen-yang  Laboratory (昆陽實驗室) Center of Disease Control

Taiwan

 

Part  of the Department of Health, Taiwan.

  

33

Preventive  Medical Institute of ROC Ministry of National Defense

Taiwan

 

 

  

34

Health  Protection Agency's Centre for Infections

United  Kingdom, Colindale

 

Located  in the Viral Zoonosis unit.

  

35

National  Institute for Medical Research

United  Kingdom, London

 

   

36

Institute  for Animal Health

United  Kingdom, Pirbright

 

 

  

37

Institute  for Animal Health Compton Laboratory

United  Kingdom, Compton

 

   

38

Defence  Science and Technology Laboratory

United  Kingdom, Porton Down

 

 

  

39

Health  Protection Agency

United  Kingdom, Porton Down

 

Special  Pathogens Reference Unit.

  

40

Health  Protection Agency

United  Kingdom, Porton Down

 

Botulism.

  

41

Francis  Crick Institute[22]

United  Kingdom, London

 

Under  construction. The UKCMRI will not work on Human Hazard Group 4 agents.

  

42

Centers  for Disease Control and Prevention

United  States, Georgia, Atlanta

 

Currently  operates in two buildings. One of two facilities in the world that officially  hold smallpox.

  

43

Georgia  State University

United  States, Georgia, Atlanta

 

Is  an older design "glovebox" facility.

  

44

National  Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), Kansas State University

United  States, Kansas, Manhattan

 

Under  construction. Facility to be operated by the Department of Homeland Security,  and replace the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (which is not a BSL-4  facility). Planned to be operational by 2015, but likely delayed.

  

45

National  Institutes of Health (NIH)

United  States, Maryland, Bethesda

 

Located  on the NIH Campus, it currently only operates with BSL-3 agents.

  

46

Integrated  Research Facility

United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick

 

Under  construction. This facility will be operated by National Institute of Allergy  and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), it is planned to begin operating at 2009 at  the earliest.

  

47

National  Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC)

United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick

 

Under  construction, it will be operated for the Department of Homeland Security.

  

48

US  Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)

United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick

1969

Old  building

  

49

US  Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)

United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick

2017?

New  building, currently under construction

  

50

National  Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory (NEIDL), Boston University

United  States, Massachusetts, Boston

 

Under  construction by Boston University, building and staff training complete,  waiting for regulatory approval.

  

51

NIAID  Rocky Mountain Laboratories

United  States, Montana, Hamilton

 

National  Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  

52

Kent  State University, Kent Campus

United  States, Ohio, Kent

 

Operates  as a clean lab at level 3 for training purposes. Scheduled for conversion to  a hot level 4 lab in response to a bioterrorism event in the USA.

  

53

Galveston  National Laboratory, National Biocontainment Facility

United  States, Texas, Galveston

 

Opened  in 2008, facility is operated by the University of Texas Medical Branch.[23]

  

54

Shope  Laboratory

United  States, Texas, Galveston

 

Operated  by the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB).

  

55

Texas  Biomedical Research Institute

United  States, Texas, San Antonio

 

The  only privay owned BSL-4 lab in the US.

  

56

Division  of Consolidated Laboratory Services

United  States, Virginia, Richmond

 

This  facility is part of the Department of General Services of the Commonwealth of  Virginia. so called "surge" BSL-4 capacity.    

  

(表中内容参考http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biosafety_level#Biosafety_level_4 )

  如上表所示,这56个生物安全*实验室遍布世界五大洲,其中非洲大陆只有两个,分别位于南非和加蓬。单论国家而言,美国zui多,有15个,其中包括一个正在建设中的、隶属*的实验室,还包括一个归私人所有的P4实验室(位于Texas Biomedical Research Institute,德州生物医学研究所),该P4实验室的私人属性(而非归国家所有)恐怕不仅在美国*,恐怕在世界范围内都是*的。

  从上表可以看出,我国*的一个P4实验室,位于中科院武汉病毒所。仅仅这一个独苗,目前尚且没有建成,俗话说“十年磨一剑”,但是这个“剑”已经磨了11年目前还不知何时才能正式磨成。根据《*财经日报》的报道,“这个中国*个也是*一个P4实验室,前期基础建设投入约2亿。……武汉P4实验室目前还没有建成,硬件和软件方面都需要推进。…….如果顺利的话,到今年年底会有一个阶段性的成果,但是距离能够使用还有一段距离。”(参考:http://tech.sina.com.cn/d/2014-08-06/.shtml)现在的埃博拉疫情相信会推动该实验室的建设速度。从报道和上表的内容可以看出,我国目前尚没有独立设计、建设P4实验室的能力,核心技术采用的是法国的。

  值得一提的是,我国目前人口*、GDP和研发经费第二,但是居然连一个已经建成使用的P4实验室都没有,应该说这在上都是很…、说不过去的事情,穷如非洲的加蓬都有一个(当然这个也是由法国援建和参与管理的),连经济和总体科技水平都不如中国的印度都有4个P4实验室,即使是被许多人贬弹丸之地的中国台湾都有2个P4实验室,当然虽然我们都政治正确地说是中国台湾,人家的两个实验室其实和中国大陆没有半毛钱关系,自己根本用不上。

  需要说明的是, 除了埃博拉病毒必须要在P4实验室操作外,还有其他一些高致病性病毒,如马尔堡病毒,拉萨(Lassa)病毒, 克里米亚- 刚果出血热病毒, 玻利维亚和阿根廷出血热病毒以及其它出血热病毒等


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